In this memoir, author Alice Nazarian tells the story of her parents and family in the shadow of the Armenian/Assyrian Genocide. Her father, Ashur Yousuf, a prominent Assyrian intellectual and professor at Euphrates College in Kharpert, Turkey, became a victim of the Genocide in 1915. Her mother, Arshaluys Yousuf, heroically struggled on after her husband’s death, raising their six children while helping educate countless young children in orphanages and schools in the Middle East.
The memoir comprises a narrative of the turbulent life of Arshaluys and a section devoted to writings by and about Ashur Yousuf. This English translation, while faithful to the original Armenian, contains some new material and an updated genealogy of the descendants of Ashur and Arshaluys Yousuf.
Author Alice Nazarian was the fifth child of Ashur and Arshaluys Yousuf. In addition to this memoir, she wrote numerous articles, poems, and lectures. She was well-known in Aleppo, Syria, as an educator and director of plays. Having lived most of her life in Aleppo, she immigrated to the United States in 1967. She died in Los Angeles in 1976.
Ishkhan Jinbashian is a literary translator. His works include translations of novels, poetry, and memoirs by Hagop Oshagan, Shahan Shahnur, Zareh Vorbuni, Yeghishe Charents, Mikayel Shamtanchian, Armen Anush, and Aram Sahakian. Jinbashian lives in Los Angeles.
Nineveh Press publishes new books and reprints old and rare books and periodicals concerning Assyrian language, literature, history and culture. Nineveh Press publishes books in various languages, such as English and Assyrian. Please read the book descriptions carefully for information regarding the language(s) of the particular book.
Title: ‘Bloodied, But Unbowed: A Memoir of the Ashur and Arshaluys Yousuf Family’ Author: Alice Nazarian 426 pages Published: November 2018 Where to purchase: www.ninevehpress.com Price: $19.99
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Last December marked the 30th anniversary of the terrible Spitak Earthquake, which shook Armenia and killed anywhere between 25,000 and 50,000 Armenian nationals and left thousands orphaned. Twenty-one years after this tragedy, natural disaster befell yet another small country in the world. This week marks the ninth anniversary of the earthquake in Haiti, which claimed anywhere between 100,000 and 300,000 lives. After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, I thought of a friend who, during the 1988 Armenian Earthquake in Spitak, was under the rubble for three days before she was rescued.
Haiti’s earthquake was a humanitarian nightmare. People all over the world did their best to respond. The United States provided nearly 60,000 Haitians with Temporary Protected Status (TPS). But this November, the Trump administration said it’s canceling the humanitarian program that has allowed thousands of Haitians to live in the US. If they don’t leave by July 2019, they could be deported. Naturally, the public has responded with protests with statements from public officials, including New York Assemblywoman Rodneyse Bichotte, herself a Haitian-American. Haitians in the US, similar to Armenians in the US, send millions of dollars back to their homeland to support their families. Haitians in New York and Florida including the Family Action Network Movement, which filed a class action lawsuit exposing the racist immigration policies of the Trump administration and the Department of Homeland Security, are waiting for justice.
Nine years after its earthquake, Haiti is still in extremely poor condition. It has been a painfully slow recovery. There are a number of social-historical factors that explain why bouncing back from such a devastating event—difficult for any developed country—has been particularly hard for Haiti.
It shouldn’t come as much of a surprise to anybody that it has a lot to do with colonialism. During my research, I found out that when Christopher Columbus landed in Haiti in 1492, there were an estimated 500,000 indigenous inhabitants—the Taino-Arawak and Caribs. Fifty years later, they were nearly eradicated due to disease and Columbus’ cruel genocidal policies. Columbus was so sadistic that his own men sent him back to Spain in chains.
In 1697 the Spanish ceded a third of the island to France, whose colonists began forming sugar and coffee plantations and engaging in slave trade. Many of their slaves were the Fon people from Dahomey. Vodun (more commonly known as “voodoo”) was a traditional religion of the Fon and many other West African indigenous peoples. It was forbidden in French colonies but nurtured in secret as a vital spiritual force that connected them to their ancestors and gave them a sense of dignity to survive. Their trances built skills to remember a spiritual purpose separate from the horrors of daily slave life.
The Haitian revolution, the largest and most successful slave revolt in the Western Hemisphere, started in 1791 with a voodoo Bwa Kay Iman ceremony. They invoked their ancestors the Minos, which means “our mothers,” and referred to the Dahomey Amazons, a fierce female militia that protected their king. Toussaint L’Ouverture united a vast network of over 200 slave leaders that started a 13 year freedom struggle in which Jean-Jacques Dessalines defeated the British, Spanish and even Napoleon’s army!
In 1801, Haiti became the first post-colonial, independent, black-led nation in the world, but was economically shunned by powerful empires, which had been built on the backs of slaves. The US—being one such empire—boycotted Haiti while France demanded 150 million francs to compensate for their stolen land. It took Haiti over 120 years to pay off this debt, which greatly impoverished the country, and now many Haitians are demanding France return this extorted money.
In 1915, the US invaded Haiti, transferred $500,000 in gold reserves to New York and changed Haiti’s constitution so foreigners could own property. In 1919, the US Marines killed rebel Charlemagne Peralte and photographed his body mounted on a flagpole with a crucifix. Hundreds of copies were distributed as a warning not to protest US occupation. The US would not allow Haitians to elect their popular leaders and instead, supported dictators like Papa Doc and Baby Doc, leaders who abused the people and ran up a debt of hundreds of millions of dollars.
In solidarity with the Haitian earthquake victims, I wrote a poem called “I Am Sailing On A Raft Of My Bones.” I have read it at many Haitian benefits and on Haitian radio, always mentioning how in 1915, while the US was invading Haiti, the Ottoman Turks were committing the Armenian Genocide.
I Am Sailing On A Raft Of My Bones
Quivering fingers are a sign Quivering fingers are a sign of life Stretching up through the concrete coffins Pressing on my breasts Come closer Breathe your caring into me So that I can inhale the sunrise
It is so hard for us to breathe Mother Earth is also suffocating under Millions of tons of real estate developers rape concrete We are cracking, exploding, tumbling Releasing into each other becoming Scattered parts of an infinite universe
Inside my eyelids oceans roar I am sailing on a raft of my bones In the choppy sea I can see 250,000 Haitian bone rafts Guided by the luminous skeleton parts Sunk deep in the Atlantic, of the 100 million Africans killed in the Middle Passage Our bones fuse together, the yearning, returning Crashing on the shores of the motherland While the daily unnatural disasters Caused by Conquerors – Genocide, Slavery, Poverty continue
In an instant your life can change for the worse In an instant your life can change for the better Ayibobo Ayiti, Hail to the Spirits Successful slave rebellion, Voodoo Queen, 1st Black Republic Ayibobo Ayiti shackled to corrupt governments Backed by US imperialism, but Ayiti you are still fragrant With the spirit of justice and resistance Ayibobo Ayiti Hail to the Spirits Hail to the Spirits
Anoush Ter Taulian
Anoush Ter Taulian is a graduate of the University of California Berkeley. In 1992, she decided to relocate to Artsakh where she volunteered in the liberation struggle alongside Monte Melkonian. She has depicted the Armenian struggle for freedom in poetry, paintings, videos, and radio. A lifelong activist speaking in schools, churches, and at anti-racism conferences, Anoush continues to bring up current attacks on Artsakh at indigenous, women’s, and political conferences.
WORCESTER, Mass.—Nassim Aoude and Michael Melkonian are the young founders of PunchPops, a new Worcester-based company breaking into the American alcohol industry with a 21-plus twist on a summertime favorite.
The idea for marketing wine-infused popsicles emerged the summer of 2017, after Melkonian and Aoude spent a long weekend with friends at Ogunquit Beach. “We had been drinking and playing spikeball all day at the beach,” recalls Melkonian. “We brought regular non-alcoholic [popsicles] with us in a cooler along with our booze. One of our friends asked for a drink from the cooler, and it turned out that we had ran out of cups. With a [popsicle] in his hand, he suggested to just pour the alcohol into the sleeve.” Enter: PunchPops.
Aoude and Melkonian, who have been best friends since high school (they attended St. Peter-Marian in Worcester), never quite envisioned they’d be embarking on a venture in alcohol. Aoude, who studied mechanical engineering at University of Massachusetts-Amherst, leads a drone services company in Worcester called Alpinax. Melkonian, who has Armenian roots and has been active in Armenian organizations like the Armenian Youth Federation (AYF), studied finance at Northeastern and went on to work for Fidelity. Confident about the potential of PunchPops in the American market, Melkonian quit his job at Fidelity last January to pursue his new business full time with Aoude.
After their beach-side discovery, the duo immediately began discussing how to turn the idea—a spiked popsicle—into a viable business. In fact, they wondered how something of this nature hadn’t already made it into the market. Turns out, it had. But Melkonian and Aoude were not impressed by what they found and felt certain that—with their millennial wits about them—they could improve upon previous attempts.
An impromptu research and development phase ensued. The two ordered supplies online and made small test batches of homemade, alcohol-infused pops. Aoude’s basement quickly transformed into a flavor development lab, while Melkonian’s kitchen became the designated manufacturing facility. During this period, they made over 10,000 pops by hand, which they tested with family and friends.
Their next concern was sourcing. Melkonian says that nearly their entire supply chain is U.S.-based—everything from the cardboard packaging to the ingredients (their co-packer is based in Missouri). Currently, the only foreign element is the film for the popsicle tubes. The wine is made from oranges in Florida and goes by the rather curious designation “Other Than Standard Orange wine.” (OTSO, referred to as “magic wine” in their website’s frequently asked questions, is a new product in the alcoholic beverage industry used often in cocktails, handled under wine regulations, yet is characterized by a higher alcohol content than most wines.)
In 2018, after months of back and forth, PunchPops was brought on by Total Wine & More, one of the largest independently owned liquor stores in the country. But bear in mind, their product is a uniquely seasonal one, and by the time they were ready to launch, it was getting to be late in the year. Popsicles don’t sell so well in the throes of a New England winter, so Aoude and Melkonian decided to release their product in Florida’s market. Today, PunchPops, which goes for $1.99 a pop (or $19.99 for a twelve-pack), is now distributed in 28 of 30 Total Wine stores in the state.
Aoude and Melkonian are now preparing to market PunchPops in their home state this spring, where warm weather will hopefully be more conducive to the idea of wine in a popsicle.
Karine Vann is the editor of the Armenian Weekly. She is a musician who transitioned into journalism while living in the Caucasus for several years. Her work has appeared in Smithsonian.com, The New Food Economy, and a number of other publications. Her critical writings focus primarily on the politics of culture, media analyses, and the environment. She spends her spare time in front of a keyboard, at a farm, or making a fuss about zero waste. If you have comments, questions, pitches, or leads, she can be reached at email@example.com.
YEREVAN—The seventh National Assembly of Armenia officially convened for its first parliamentary session since December’s snap election. Deputies were sworn in last week ahead of Monday’s meeting, completing the peaceful transition of power triggered by the Velvet Revolution of 2018.
At an inauguration ceremony held at the Presidential palace, President Armen Sarkisian formally re-appointed Nikol Pashinyan as Prime Minister. Pashinyan had vacated the position late last year in order to trigger a snap election. The President, whose powers are largely ceremonial according to Armenia’s 2017 constitution, congratulated the Prime Minister at a press event, adding “Your success is our entire country’s success, our people’s success, including mine.”
Pashinyan’s “My Step” coalition won a decisive victory in the December 2018 parliamentary election. The 132 available seats have been proportionally distributed among the three parties which passed the electoral threshold. Due to the 2016 electoral code’s confusing arithmetic, which allowed for the total size of the unicameral body to fluctuate between 105 and 132 seats, the Central Election Commission (CE) finalized the results barely a two weeks before Parliament reconvened.
With the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) and the Republican Party of Armenia (RPA) failing to pass the five percent threshold for Parliamentary representation, “My Step” Alliance increased its showing from five to 88 seats. Prosperous Armenia (PAP) held on to 26 of its 31 seats, while Bright Armenia (BA) added 15 seats for a total of 18. For the first time in the country’s democratic history, women make up a quarter of the Assembly.
Parliament confirmed Ararat Mirzoyan of the Civic Contract party as Speaker. His previous position of First Deputy Prime Minister, originally created with former Prime Minister Karen Karapetyan in mind, has been abolished. Veteran Civil Contract politicians, Lena Nazaryan and Alen Simonyan took their posts as first and second deputy speakers.
Civil Contract announced its intention to back the candidacy of Prosperous Armenia’s Vahe Enfiajian for Third Deputy Speaker. This decision was met with criticism from Bright Armenia leader Edmon Marukyan, who argued that former Minister of Labour, Mane Tandilyan, would be a more qualified choice. The Armenian Constitution reserves the Third Deputy Speaker position to the Opposition.
Civil Contract’s parliamentary majority allows the party to form a government without forming a coalition. Commentators have cast doubts on claims by both Bright Armenia and PAP of forming the legitimate opposition. PAP has entered government coalitions with the RPA in the past but has rarely taken principled stances on any issue. Pashinyan also counted on PAP’s pivotal support to secure his office. Bright Armenia formed part of a coalition with Civil Contract until recently and shares many of its ideological positions.
Ultimately, Civil Contract representatives justified their decision to back the PAP on the grounds that they held the largest non-governmental parliamentary faction.
Since first-time lawmakers make up over three quarters of the new Assembly, commentators have expressed concern over the body’s relative lack of experience. For others, the passing of the torch to a new generation of politicians with no connection to Soviet-era political conventions is a net positive.
With a number of Armenian news outlets live-streaming from the assembly chambers, Armenian social media came to life with discussions on the new appointments, the usual intrigue and humorous takes on the incoming parliamentarians. One political cartoon poking fun at the new Assembly’s younger demographic by comparing Parliament to a kindergarten classroom made the rounds on Facebook.
One MP Gor Gevorgyan created a minor commotion on the Internet when he chose to open his speech with a quote from Paul the Apostle, which he tried to repeat in Krapar (Biblical Armenian) to humorous effect.
As for Pashinyan, the Prime Minister has promised major government restructuring. His government has already signaled its intention to close or merge at least five ministries, including the Ministries of Diaspora and Culture. He also has until the end of this week to announce his picks for cabinet for formal approval. Defense Minister Davit Tonoyan and Foreign Minister Zohrab Mnatsakanian will likely retain their posts. His government is expected to submit a five year policy proposal by February.
Weekly Columnist & Armenia Correspondent
Raffi Elliott is a Canadian-born entrepreneur and occasional journalist who likes to ramble on about socioeconomic and political issues in Armenia. He lives in Yerevan with his family. He also holds a masters degree in International Relations.
According to the Early Warning Project of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Turkey is ranked 8th among countries with the highest risk of committing mass killings. Azerbaijan is wrongly ranked much lower at 87th, and Armenia is correctly ranked even lower at 102nd. Turkey is assessed as having 11.2 percent or a one in nine chance of new mass killings during 2019.
The Early Warning Project stated that “genocides are never spontaneous. They are always preceded by a range of early warning signs. If these signs are detected, their causes can be addressed, preventing the potential for catastrophic progression.”
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s founding charter, written by Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel, states that “only a conscious, concerted attempt to learn from past errors can prevent recurrence to any racial, religious, ethnic or national group. A memorial unresponsive to the future would also violate the memory of the past.”
Turkey’s high risk of committing genocide once again is based on its past and present actions. The Turkish government has not only committed genocide against Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks a century ago, but continues to commit mass killings against its minority Kurdish population. Even more concerning is the fact that Turkish leaders deny their history of mass murders and shamefully remain unapologetic, which leads to the commission of new crimes against humanity!
Turkey’s genocidal risk assessment is understated as the study only includes mass killings within a country, excluding the victims of interstate conflict. As Turkey has been involved in large-scale military attacks against Kurds in Syria and Iraq and threatens to expand its military actions in Northern Syria, the risk of its commitment of mass crimes is much higher than the study indicates.
The Early Warning Project explains that the failed coup attempt in 2016 increased the chances of mass killings in Turkey. Over 100,000 military and civilian personnel were dismissed and tens of thousands were imprisoned, many without a trial. “Other [Turkish genocide] risk factors include a lack of freedom of movement, the country’s anocratic regime type [a mix of autocratic and democratic characteristics], a large population, a history of mass killings, and the ongoing armed conflict between the government and Kurdish rebels.”
Turkish Journalist Jailed for Telling the Truth
An Istanbul court sentenced Turkish journalist Pelin Unker to imprisonment for 13 months and 15 days after being accused of defaming her nation’s former Prime Minister and two of his sons. She was also fined $1,615 on January 8, 2018.
Unker had written an article in the Turkish newspaper Cumhuriyet, exposing that former Prime Minister Binali Yildirim and his two sons owned five shipping companies in Malta. After serving as Prime Minister for two years, Yildirim became Speaker of Turkey’s Parliament. He is currently a mayoral candidate in Istanbul on behalf of Pres. Erdogan’s ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP).
The Yildirim family’s ownership of companies in Malta was exposed by the “Paradise Papers” and published in newspapers around the world. As I had reported in my June 2017 article, the Yildirim family owned the following shipping and other foreign assets worth $140 million:
— 18 ships (Dutch conglomerates, fully or partly owned)
— 1 ship (Netherlands Antilles company) — 4 Malta companies
— 7 properties in the Netherlands
— 8 ships in the Netherlands — 3 ships in Malta
Strangely, Pelin Unker was the only journalist punished for exposing the Yildirim assets. Unker said she will appeal the unfair sentence as Yildirim acknowledged in court that he owned the companies in an offshore tax haven. The former Prime Minister and his sons filed a lawsuit in November 2017, accusing Unker of “insulting and slandering a public official.”
Gerard Ryle, Director of the International Consortium of Independent Journalists, condemned Unker’s punishment “as yet another disgraceful attack on free speech in Turkey.” Ryle added: “the sentence ignored the truth of the Paradise Papers’ investigation and it would have a chilling effect on what little remained of press freedom in Turkey. This unjust ruling is about silencing fair and accurate reporting. Nothing more. ICIJ commends Pelin Unker’s brave and truthful investigative reporting and it condemns this latest assault on journalistic freedom under Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s autocratic rule.”
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) ranked Turkey 157th of 180 countries on the 2018 World Free Press Index. RSF described Turkey as “the world’s biggest prison for professional journalists!”
California Courier Editor
Harut Sassounian is the publisher of The California Courier, a weekly newspaper based in Glendale, Calif. He is the president of the United Armenian Fund, a coalition of the seven largest Armenian-American organizations. He has been decorated by the president and prime minister of the Republic of Armenia, and the heads of the Armenian Apostolic and Catholic churches. He is also the recipient of the Ellis Island Medal of Honor.
Many Armenians of the diaspora ended up in California. Another group settled on the east coast. My destiny was in Minnesota.
In 2009 at Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, I won an academic exchange fellowship to study in the U.S for a year. I didn’t have a choice of host university or state; just a month before my departure, I learned that I would be going to Minnesota to attend Minnesota State University-Mankato.
I spent a year in Mankato, a small college town ninety minutes south of Twin Cities. I don’t know if it was the deer hanging out under my dorm room windows, the charming nature trails, or the friendly academic community and cheerful strangers, but I quickly fell in love with my new habitat.
During my time in Mankato, I managed to explore a little bit of Minnesota. My friends and I visited a few national parks, attended the annual Mahkato Pow Wow festival, learned about Native American tribes, and watched a hockey game—a popular sport in the state. Of course, we also experienced the real ‘Minnesnowta’ winter and even managed not to freeze to death.
Upon the completion of my academic year, I returned to Armenia and continued my education there. A few years later, I went to Illinois as a graduate student, and somehow, I fell in love with a guy who happened to be from Minnesota. I knew before we married that we were going to move to Minnesota shortly after my graduation. I’ve learned that most Minnesotans are very patriotic when it comes to their home state, and even when they move out of state, their return is just a matter of time.
The more I have learned about the real character of this land of 10,000 lakes, the happier and more comfortable I have been living here as an Armenian expat. I’ve even found a lot of similarities between Minnesotans and Armenians (at least, the Armenians I know). For example, Minnesotans, like Armenians, have long goodbyes. Each time we visit family or friends, I know we should start putting shoes on at least half an hour before we need to leave. Minnesotans have a habit of starting new conversations during this time, and that’s exactly what saying goodbye to an Armenian family or friend is like. Those farewells can last forever (especially if you know my grandpa).
Minnesotans are also incredibly polite. They don’t take the last piece of anything. A few weeks ago I noticed that someone left half of the last piece of pie in my office kitchen—they just left it sitting on the counter to die in loneliness and neglect! In Armenia, we also live in such a communal way, where we are taught from birth to save the last bite of anything for someone else.
Armenian immigrants have been coming to Minnesota for over a century now. Like many other parts of this country, we have contributed to this state’s history and development, including its railways and bridges. We have launched commercial endeavors and funded philanthropic projects such as Cafesjian’s Carousel in Saint Paul’s famous Como Park. There is now an Armenian church in Saint Paul, St. Sahag, with a wonderful pastor and community leader, Fr. Tadeos Barseghyan.
There are about 200 Armenian families currently living in this small and intimate community, where everyone knows each other. There are enough of us here now that there is always something going on, like festivals, Christmas dinners, bake sales and church events. These opportunities bring us together to remind us of home and help share our culture with others.
Minnesota’s Armenians celebrate everything together. Whether it is a baby shower, a graduation, a house warming party or a wedding, everyone comes together to help with organizing and supporting the events. My husband and I are actively involved in the Armenian church and community. I am fortunate that my community helped me adjust to Minnesota so easily and make me feel like I am truly at home.
I also love it here because, just like in Armenia, people maintain certain traditions (though those traditions are somewhat different from one another!). For example, in Minnesota, people are dedicated about watching Vikings’ football games (ind if you happen to be a Green Bay Packers fan, you will be marked a traitor).
There is also a tradition of eating lutefisk dinners (dried and lye-soaked white fish with a jellied texture) every November and during Easter time. It reminds me of my own Armenian tradition of eating khash (beef feet soup) every winter. Hunting is also a common tradition in Minnesota that brings people together. Most Minnesotans I know, including my husband, spend at least a few days hunting ducks, geese or deer during the fall. It’s something they always look forward to, and the roads are filled with pickups, campers, trailers and ATVs each weekend.
Finally, Minnesotans have their own ‘dialect,’ so to speak. No, they don’t speak like the characters in “Fargo” (that television show, by the way, is actually very annoying to some people here). It is funny how sometimes, even I start speaking Minnesotan without even noticing it. I catch myself more often saying ‘uff-da’ when I express relief or disbelief. I even sometimes say “You bet” instead of “You’re welcome,” even though I prefer the latter.
So at this point, I don’t know if, as an expat, I would feel this comfortable living in any state outside of Minnesota. I love that my state has its own unique character, culture and traditions. And one thing I know for now is that, East or West, Minnesota is best.
Emma Ohanyan-Tri was born and raised in Yerevan. She moved to the US in 2013 and graduated from Northern Illinois University with a
master’s in Communication Studies. She currently lives in Saint
Paul, MN and works as a Marketing Automation Analyst at Minnesota Public Radio. Emma enjoys traveling, meeting new people, exploring natural parks and writing for her personal blog Diasporina.com.
Արտակարգ իրավիճակների նախարարությունը տեղեկացնում է, որ հունվարի 20-ին՝ ժամը 10:00-ի դրությամբ ՀՀ տարածքում կան դժվարանցանելի և փակ ավտոճանապարհներ:
Վարդենյաց լեռնանցքը կցորդիչով բեռնատարների համար փակ է, իսկ մնացածի համար՝ դժվարանցանելի:
Դժվարանցանելի է Սոթք-Քարվաճառ ավտոճանապարհը:
Սոթք-Քարվաճառ ավտոճանապարհին, Շիրակի մարզի Աշոցքի և Ամասիայի տարածաշրջանների, Սյունիքի մարզի ավտոճանապարհներին տեղ-տեղ առկա է մերկասառույց:
Վրաստանի տարածաշրջանային զարգացման և ենթակառուցվածքների նախարարության ավտոճանապարհային դեպարտամենտից ստացված տեղեկատվության համաձայն Ստեփանծմինդա-Լարս ավտոճանապարհը բաց է միայն մարդատար ավտոմեքենաների և ավտոբուսների համար:
ՌԴ ԱԻՆ Հյուսիսային Օսիայի Հանրապետության գլխավոր վարչությունից ստացված տեղեկատվության համաձայն ռուսական կողմում կա կուտակված 259 բեռնատար, 167 մարդատար ավտոմեքենա և 2 ավտոբուս: